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Description of the municipality

Toko Council:

The council was created within the framework of decree no. 77/203 of 19th June 1977 to setup councils and define their boundaries. A Presidential decree in April 1995 created Toko District which was later upgraded to a sub division by another decree in 2010. It is bordered to the north by Dikume Balue, to the south by Eyumojock, to the east by Konye and Nguti and to the west by Mundemba. The village study (Aug. 2011) put the total population at fourteen thousand and forty five (14.045) inhabitants of whom there are 3.815 men and 4,480 women and 5,625 are children. Council authorities however contest these figures given that a council village by village population analysis through Village Development Associations put the figure in 2011 at sixty six thousand (66.000) inhabitants. The municipality has a total surface area of 103,413 hectares (1,034.13 km2) representing a population density of fifteen to thirty (15 to 30) inhabitants per km2 (source: South West Master Plan, 2004). This low population density in Toko is due to the dense tropical forest most of which are reserved. These include KORUP Park which occupies a surface area of 49,105 hectares (491.05 km2) which are dedicated primarily to conservation, research and tourism; the RUMPI Hills covers a surface area of 5,445 hectares (54.45 km2) and the Christian Philanthropic Community Forest covers a surface area of 4,928 hectares (49.28 km2). An organization from the United States of America called SG SOC has recently settled (and put in place a oil palms nursery) in Lipenja and is requesting 13,303 hectares (133.03 km2) of land. If granted these organizations will have control of more than 70% of the entire surface area of Toko municipality while the communities that are comprised of the Ngolos, Batangas or Bakokos will be left with about 30% of land on which to engage in farming and hunting. The municipality is endowed with natural resources including stones, rocks, sand deposits, timber (iroko, asube, njabe, mahogany, ebony, sapelle, obeche, bobinga, duzie), NTFP (bush mango, bush onion, febe etc) and wildlife.

Since its creation in 1992, Toko council has been administered by five (05) District Heads, one Divisional Officer.

Description of the Biophysical Environment


Toko municipality has an equatorial climate where there are two distinct seasons: a long rainy season of about eight months and a relatively shorter dry season of about four months. The annual amount of rainfall ranges from 3500mm to 5000mm.The rainfall pattern provides suitable conditions for the growth of both perennial and annual crops thus allowing for two cropping seasons a year. Rainfall is a major determinant on agricultural production in terms of the crops grown, the farming system and the sequence and timing of farming operations.

Daily temperatures are relatively moderate throughout the year and ranges from 20°C to 30°C. Humidity varies with the absolute value and the seasonal distribution of rainfall, being uniformly moderate throughout the wet season, and falling to lower levels during the dry season


The Toko municipality has rich clay loam and lateritic soil type which is very fertile for agricultural production. This has greatly influenced the cultivation of both cash and food crops. Due to poor farming techniques in the area, the soil is gradually losing its fertility.


The topography is undulating with hills and slopes ranging from between 200 to about 1000m. Hence, movement from one village to the other within municipality which is done primarily on foot as result of the poor road network is very difficult.


The Toko council area has so many streams, springs and waterfalls which have direct bearings with the river Meme which takes it rise from the Rumpi Hills as it drains the highlands of Madie, Dikome Balue and the coastal lowlands of Mbonge in the Meme Division before emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. The Combrany River which originates from within Toko municipality also empties itself into the Meme River. Thse features can serve as potential touristic sites within the municipality when developed. Despite the seemingly abundant availability of water, only three villages have made meaningful effort at having portable water supply including Madie Ngolo, Madie New Town and Toko. The rest of the population depends entirely on springs, sreams and rainfall as sources of drinking water.

Vegetation and Fauna.

The vegetation is characterised by the evergreen tropical forest most of which contains tree species of immense economic value. The Korup Project, Rumpi Hills and Philantropic forest reserves of the area contains a rich variety of flora and fauna. Many non-timber forest products are also found, including kola nuts and bush pepper, njansang, bitter cola and a variety of medicinal plants.

The difference in topography, vegetation and climate gives rise to a variety of both food and cash crops which includes; banana, cocoyams, maize, cassava, plantains cocoa, and oil palm. Copcoa is the main cash crop within the municipality.

Some of the animal species includes; elephants, monkeys and porcupines.

Historical Profile

Ethnic Groups and inter-ethnic relations

The indegenes of Toko municipality comprises the Ngolo, Batanga, and Bakoko. There are other migrants from different parts of the Cameroon such as the Bayangi, Dongolo, Bakundu and Grasslanders who are inter married and coexist in the municipality.


Christianity is the predominant religion within Toko municipality and there is freedom of worship. The main Christian denominations in the area are the Presbyterians and Pentacostals.

The Presbyterian Church in Cameroon contributes to the development of the municipality by providing basic health facilities through the Presbyterian Health Center at Madie Ngolo.

Mobility of the population

The rate of movement into and out of Toko Municipality is very low. This is due to a large extent to the absence of employment opportunities in the council area and the inaccessibility of villages within the municipality as a result of the poor road network. There are civil servants who have been transferred to the different schools and health centers within Toko sub division and who are hardly around due to the harsh living realities.

The rate of rural exudus is high as people, especially the youth move from the municipality to other sub divisions and cities either in search of jobs, better education (attend universities or professional schools) or to do business.

Size and structure of the population

The total population size of Toko municipality in 2010 was estimated at seven thousand and thirty five (7.035) inhabitants of whom there are 3.515 men and 3.520 women. (Source: Bureau of Census & Population Studies). But from field survey, the population was estimated to be 14.045 inhabitants of whom are men 3815, women 4480 and 5625 being children.

The municipality has a total surface area of 103,413 hectares (1,034.13 km2) representing a population density of fifteen to thirty (15 to 30) inhabitants per km2.

This low population density in Toko is due to the dense tropical forest most of which are reserved by development organizations.

Socio Economic Infrastucture in the Municipality:

All villages within the municipality have a Palaver House (an Etane) which is used as a venue for conflict resolution and other social gatherings. Several of these structures are in very bad shape with no concrete floors, chairs, windows and doors. “Etanes” structures were identified in the following villages; Toko, Ikoti II, Bokuba, Iboko, Banobeanga, Basari, Nwamoki, Iyombo, Dikume, Iwasa, Ngamoki, Moboka, Madie I, II, III, Dienge, Bareka I, II, Lipenja, Ikenge, Esukotan, Kilekile, Esoki.

Meangwe I has a Catholic Church hall while Madie I has a Presbyterian Church hall.