COMMUNES ET VILLES UNIES DU CAMEROUN :: UNITED COUNCILS AND CITIES OF CAMEROON

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EKONDO TITI

 

 

  Mayor     MBONGO Alfred NGOE
Phone            +237 79 67 27 84
Number of municipal councilors  31
Surface Area  1750km2
Population Density  32.28km2
Number of inhabitants  56,503
Date of creation  29/06/77

 Location of the council

Created in 1977 by Presidential decree No.77/205 of 29/06/1977, splitting the then Ndian area council into four new councils; Ekondo-Titi, Mundemba, Bamusso and Isangele. The Ekondo-Titi council has a population of about 56,503 inhabitants on 1.750 square kilometres surface area.

The sub-division is made up of the maritime and the main land area. The main land area is composed of 26 villages (Dibonda, Loe, Illor, Funge, Ekondo-Nene, Masore, Kitta, Nalende, Munyenge, Bisoro, Bafaka, Pondo, Kotto, Kumbe Balue, Ekwe, Njima, Iribanyange, Dora, Mokono, Bekatako, Lipenja, Bongongo I, Bongongo II, Lobe Town, Kumbe Balondo and Berenge), 1 C.D.C workers camp(Beyanga) and 3 urban spaces(Ekondo-Titi, Bekora and Lobe Estate), while the maritime constitutes the 19 kombos (Eweni, Aruchuku, Aboko, Funge Door mouth, Bakara, Benja, Stone creek, Godgift, Freedom, German Beach, Nyanga, Matutu I, Matutu II, Inesium I, Inesium II, Black Bush I, Black Bush III, Kombo Maria, Rumsa,).

The council is located some 56km from Kumba the economic headquarters of the South West region, the Ekondo-Titi council is bounded to the East and South East by the Mbonge Council, North East by Dikome Balue Council, North West by Mundemba Council, West by Kombo Itindi Council and South by Bamusso Council.

The council has huge forest resources, a very rich mangrove swamp forest, a maritime zone and a huge agro-industrial palm plantation.

Description of the biophysical environment

The Ekondo-Titi municipality is sub divided into two zones i.e. the maritime and the mainland area with two distinct biophysical environments. The maritime area which comprises about 19 Kombos (fishing ports) is surrounded by an evergreen mangrove ecosystem forest with a variety of biodiversity i.e. birds, reptiles and animal species. This area is accessible through the creeks. This area is highly risky during the raining season due to its swampy nature. However, these swamps also serve as a breeding ground for diverse fish species.

Generally, Ekondo-Titi is an area of low relief dominated by the Ndian Basin. However, the range of Rumpi Hills with an altitude of 1764m above sea level stretch to part of Ekondo-Titi Sub Division, precisely in the Balue area ( Bisoro, Bafaka, Kotto, Munyenge) and constitute the high lands of the Ekondo-Titi Council area.

With respect to hydrology network, the Rumpi Hills constitutes the main catchment area from which the River Meme, Ndian, and Ma’a (which are the main rivers in the Sub Division) take their rise and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. These rivers increase in volumes in the rainy season and reduce in the dry season.

Climate

Ekondo-Titi, as well as the entire Ndian Division has an equatorial climate, but its dominant lowland topography (exempting the highlands towards the north east), and its proximity towards the sea provokes an equatorial maritime climate type along the Atlantic coast. The Climate is characterised by two seasons (rainy and dry) determine by the apparent movement of the overhead sun and seasonal tropical winds.

Generally, annual rainfall is high. It ranges from 480mm on the lowlands and 4000mm on the windward slope of the Rumpi Hills. Maximum rainfall occurs between July and October when the South West Monsoon winds or the Westerly’s are strongest and minimum between December and January when the North east trade winds or hamattan are dominant. Temperatures are uniformly high, mean annual being about 26˚C; it reduces by altitude to 16 or 20˚C towards the villages to the Rumpi Hills.

Requisite climatic conditions and relief gives the sub-division from the Atlantic coast, a mangrove swamp forest, an equatorial evergreen forest up to the foot of the Rumpi Hills and an Afro-Montana forest on the Rumpi hills where patches of Savannah also exist.

Vegetation

The vegetation is quite rich in biodiversity with tropical species of economic importance including hard wood like Iroko, sapelle, mahogany, small leaves, mangrove etc, and a variety of NTFPs and Fauna. However, this forest and biodiversity is alarmingly degrading by small holders and agro-industries like PAMOL and CDC, unsustainable illegal logging, subsistence and cash crop agriculture and poaching for bush meat.

Fauna and Floral

The Ekondo-Titi municipality is endowed with a forest composed of a rich variety of fauna and floral. It also possesses a mangrove forest and creek which are breeding sites and habitat of diverse fish and other aquatic species. Domestic animals (Cattle, cat, dog goat, sheep, fowls, pig) and fruit trees (mango, pear, plum, guava, orange, grape, apple etc) are common in the villages.

Soils

The distribution of soil types in the Ekondo-Titi area is related to the local vegetation, relief and climate. There are basically three distinct soil types in the region, dark brown alluvial soil (Bekora upto Bisoro), Lateralitic soil (Masore upto Dibonda), silty alluvium (Kumbe Balondo, part of Lobe Town and the maritime villages) which is subject to seasonal flooding especially in the lowland villages. The hilly area is a dissected plateau of old volcanic rocks with a lot of folded sedimentary belts. This soil type is very good for plantation agriculture especially palms and cocoa.

Relief

The Ekondo Titi municipality stands out as an area of gentle relief with generally lowlands in the south, west, north and north west (Balondo and maritime villages). As you move towards the east and North-East, the relief changes to hilly landscape which composes of a chain of folds resulting from denudational forces. Some areas in the East have altitude of upto 1000m above sea level. Close to the Atlantic Ocean are the mangrove swamps, several creeks, and sand-spits that stretch from the muddy coast lines of Ekondo Titi to the Ndian River Basin.

Hydrology

The Ekondo Titi council is blessed with quite a number of water courses including rivers, streams and spring. The main rivers include rivers Meme and Ma’a which both take their rise from the Rumpi Hills and empty into the Atlantic Ocean and River Ndian respectively.

History of the People

The people of the Ekondo-Titi Council area are of the Balondo, Balue and Barombi tribes. Their vernaculars are Oroko and Abo. A total of 29 chiefdoms exist in the municipality, 28 of which are third-class degree chiefdoms and only Ekondo-Titi has second-class degree chiefdom.

Balondo and Balue speak Oroko and Barombi speak Abo.

The Balondo and Balue are generally referred to as the Orokos of the Coastal or North West Bantus. Like all Bantus they claim to have migrated from the North or Upper Nile to the South East (Ubangi Shari) due to climatic changes or desertification of the Sahara and Arab raids. From the South East they moved west through Congo basin and then South pushed by the Fulani jihads of Usman Danfodio to occupy their present site in the 18th and 19th centuries.

These people have powerful juju societies, practice ancestral worship and believe in mystery and destiny. They are also tolerant, receptive and open to the outside world.

The Barombi people migrated from Abo clan in the littoral region to the present site.

All the three tribes each have the same type of traditional set up and cultural heritage.

With the evolution of the modern administrative structures, traditional councils have been created in addition to what is reflected. They are answerable directly to the chief of the village.

There are also immigrants who have migrated to settle in these areas which include; Nigerians, Ghanians, Bakweries and the North Westerners who engage in agriculture, fishing and other income generating activities including the civil service. The Oroko ethnic groups are concentrated in the main land area while the maritime areas are mostly populated by the Nigerians.

The culture of the municipality is portrayed through their music, dressing, housing, craft and food. A wide musical variety exists in the area

Ekpe – General Orocko dance group

Ambekoko – Balue dance

Jokki – Balondo dance

Merengue- General Orocko dance group in the area

Dressing in the area is that which is common in the entire South West region of Cameroon, and the Sawa people of the Littoral region. These dresses are worn mostly in traditional occasions.

The common craftwork found in the area include special baskets weaved and floor mats. These baskets are used in carrying load.

Traditional dishes include plantain, ekpang, akpana etc.

Religion

Christianity is the predominant religion in Ekondo Titi Municipality, constituting about 85% of the population. The Christians are made up of different denominations which are Catholics, Presbyterians, Apostolic and Full Gospel. Proximity of the council to the Federal Republic of Nigeria has facilitated the influx of several New Christian Religious Movements.

There are also traditionalists who adhere to ‘juju’ and shrine worship and Muslims, who constitutes about 4% of the population.

The christian churches of Catholic, Presbyterian and Apostolic have been involved not only in the evangelization of the Sub division for a long time, but also in setting the pace for educational and health development. These religious bodies currently provide educational, health and other social services to the population.

Demograph

Population Size and Structure

Ekondo-Titi municipality has an estimated total population of 54,096 (head counts, field survey, 2011) inhabitants and a total surface area of 1,750 km square giving a population density of 31 persons per km square. Assuming a national annual population growth rate of 3%, it is projected to be 91,422 inhabitants by 2035.

The increase in population is partly due to the presence of the agro-industry, Pamol, and increase in food production resulting from the economic growth, improvement in health care facilities, increase in educational infrastructure, and immigration.

There is an influx of population especially in the maritime area (creeks) of Inesium I as a result of the increased fishing activities of Nigerians and Ghanaians off the coast of Ekondo Titi. In the mainland area, the increase in population is partly due to the presence of the giant PAMOL and CDC plantations.

A factor which might have led to a rapid increase of population in Ekondo-Titi town might have been the creation of the military Battalion, their families and other people also have come to take advantage of the consequent improvement in the business potentials of the town.

Basic socio economic infrastructure

The basic socio economic infrastructures of the municipality include; health centre; (4 government), plantations of CDC, PAMOL and other small holders; primary schools, 50 (public 36, mission 8, lay private 6) and 16 secondary schools (11 Government, 1 mission 4 Lay Private), four types of financial institutions namely: Lobe Credit Union, Express Union, FIFFA and MC2 Bank. Transportation in the maritime is very commercial with large sea engine boats. There is just one constructed market (Ekondo Titi), 4 villages are connected to AES SONEL electrification scheme, 2 communities have pipe borne water, 1 social center and 2 functional boreholes and 15 good wells in the municipality.