COMMUNES ET VILLES UNIES DU CAMEROUN :: UNITED COUNCILS AND CITIES OF CAMEROON

BUREAU NATIONAL :: National Office

TIKO

 

Mayor MOKONDO Daniel NGANDE

Phone           +237 676 93 00 73

  

Location of the council

Tiko Council is one of the five councils of Fako Division in the South West Region of Cameroon. The council was created in 1974 as a rural council and in 2004 it was transformed into a Municipal council by virtue of Law No. 018/2004 of 22nd July 2004. It has a total surface area of 4,840 km2 and is bounded to the West by the Limbe council, to the North by the Buea council, to the North-East by Muyuka council, to the East by the Dibombari council in Mungo Division and to the South by Bonaberi council.

The council has 28 villages 16 of which are located in the mainland while 12 are in the creeks. Three of these villages full within the urban spaces of Tiko municipality. They are Tiko, Likomba and Mutengene.

Biophysical Environment

Climate

The Tiko municipality has a coastal equatorial climate. There are two distinct seasons: a long rainy season of about 8 months and a short dry season of about 4 months. . The annual amount of rainfall ranges from 2000mm to 4000mm.The rainfall pattern provides suitable conditions for both perennial and annual crops to grow; thus providing ideal conditions for two cropping seasons a year. The rainfall is one of the most important climatic factors influencing agriculture, having the highest effect in determining the potential of the area, the crops grown, the farming system and the sequence and timing of farming operations. It is the supplier of soil moisture for crops.

Daily temperatures are high throughout the year and range from 28°C to 33°C

The atmospheric humidity varies with the absolute value and the seasonal distribution of rainfall, being uniformly high throughout the wet season, and falling to lower levels during the dry season

Soils

Information on soil is not readily available. However, from observations, the soils of the Tiko municipality are of sandy alluvial and volcanic soil types with high agricultural potentials. The volcanic soils are highly exploited for plantation agriculture. Due to poor farming techniques in the area, there is gradual decline in soil fertility.

Relief

Tiko municipality is mainly characterized by coastal lowlands with wetlands and flood zones and to a lesser extent by gentle undulating and rolling hills around Likomba and Mutengene. The lowland areas are the sites favorable for human settlement.

Hydrology

The main water courses in the Tiko municipality include River Mungo, the Ombe River, Ndongo and Benyo streams. Many smaller streams feed the main rivers and streams. These rivers and streams empty into the Atlantic Ocean. The river Mungo has many species of fish and sand that are highly exploited by villagers in the Mungo area. The streams and rivers are also used as sources of water for domestic use (washing, cooking, and even drinking) in most of the villages

There also exist a few springs in the area (1 in Missellelle, 2 in Mutengene at quarter one, and one in Likumba along the bank of Ndongo stream). These springs are also used as water sources for domestic use and drinking.

No lakes are found in the area. However, there are many marshy areas, which are temporary wet during the rainy season.

Vegetation

Eighty percent (80%) of the forest land of Tiko municipality has been converted to oil palm, rubber and banana plantations by CDC and only few patches of secondary forests exist. The creeks harbor large areas of mangrove forest which is very highly exploited for wood. These mangrove swamps form important breeding sites for fish, shrimp and other important aquatic wildlife. Small patches of grassland also exist in some of the elevated areas (hill tops). There also exist artificial forests of oil palms and Rubber.

Fauna

The clearance of forest for farm lands destroys the habitat of many wildlife species rendering them homeless and vulnerable to extinction. This has led to the disappearance of many of the forest fauna species that existed in the municipality. However, few wildlife species still exist in the area.

Protected sites

There exist natural sites with ecological importance, like wetlands, forest, mangrove swamps, but without any protection status. This explains the reason why there is high rate of depletion of natural resources inthe municipality. There is need for zoning, to carve out some of the ecologically important areas for protection.

Bonako Mainland has a sacred forest with a surface area of 0.1Ha and the dominant species in this forest is Black Afara.

Mineral resources

It is obvious that valuable resources are to be found beneath the surface of the earth in the form of mineral. No research has been carried out to discover the types of minerals found underneath the surface in the area. However, there is a possibility of the existence of an underground petroleum deposit in the Bonako Island. The people there complained that the petroleum sips into wells contaminating the water.

The Tiko municipality is also endowed with a lot of sand present in rivers and the creeks. This sand is being exploited in small scale by the inhabitants for income. There exists a large quarry in quarter 20 in Mutengene (Ombe New Layout), which is being exploited by a construction company (NEO-TP).There also exist small Quarries in the Tiko town area, exploited by the inhabitants in small scales for income generation.

Description of the socio- economic environment

History of the council

The Tiko Council area has a long history. Tiko means “exchange” in the Bakweri dialect. Tiko and Likumba area was originally a hunting ground for one hunter from Molyko called Joke Malisonge. He discovered the place in the late 18th Century and used to come and stay there for about three months hunting. At times he came along with his family and he used to exchange meat for fish from Edjo people. Other hunters, farmers and fishermen also discovered the area and started coming there to exchange their products. Some of them started settling there and by 1903, the settlement had grown. The first settlers in the area were, Bakweri hunters and farmers from Molyko, Bwenga, Bulu and Bokova and fishermen from Douala. In 1911, the Tiko City was formally created by the Germans, who gave 300 hectares of land with titles to some 35 Douala and Bakweri families. In 1922, the Tiko native Council was created under Chief Joke Nasoa though administered by the Victoria Federated Native Authority.

Prior to 1922, there were two councils in Tiko: The Tiko Group Council for Natives and the Tiko City Council for Immigrants. The Councils were later fused and reorganized in 1928. Following the 1948 Native Authority reorganization, the Tiko Group Council was part of the Victoria Federated Native Authority. In 1952, it was reorganized as a subordinate Native Authority with its own Chairman and 28 councillors. This was followed by other reorganizations in 1958 as the Tiko District Council, in 1966 as the Tiko Area Council and in 1977, as the Tiko Rural Council.

In 1971 the Tiko Area Council was endowed with a Subdivision, which was extended in 1975. On June 19, 1977 it was renamed as the Tiko Rural Council covering the entire Tiko Sub-division. Between 1977 and 1996 the membership of the Council rose from 35 to 41 Councillors while the population was over 65.000 inhabitants.

In 2004 it was transformed into the Tiko Council by virtue of Law No. 018/2004 of 22nd July 2004.

Demography

No census information is readily available. However, according to the 2010 Population estimate of the Tiko health district, the Tiko municipality has a total population of 134,649 inhabitants distributed in eight (08) health areas. This gives an average population density of 28 inhabitants per Km2 for the Municipality.

Population mobility

The rate of movement into and out Tiko Municipality is very high. The influx of people from other tribes in Cameroon and Nigeria are attributed to the rich soil, fishing, the presence of the CDC plantations that offer employment opportunities, the business nature of the Tiko Town which attracts business men and civil servant who are transferred to the Tiko Sub division to live and work there.

People, especially the youths move from the Municipality to other sub divisions and cities either to search for greener pastures (better paid jobs), to further their education (attend universities or professional schools) or to do business.

There is also movement within the municipality with people moving from the villages to the town to consult in hospitals, attend secondary schools, certify documents, and buy provisions to be retailed in the villages. Traders from towns also go to village markets either to sell or buy.

Ethnic groups and inter-ethnic relations.

The indigenes of the Tiko Council area include the Bakwerians, the Mongos and some Bimbias in Bwenga clan. Generally, there is a mixture of several Cameroonian tribes that inhabit the Tiko council area, but the domineering tribes include people from the North West region (Bafut, Bali, Banso, Aghemm, Kom, Wimbum, etc), the Bamilekis, the Bangwas, Bayangis, Orokos, Mbohs, Bakossis, people from the North and Centre Regions of Cameroon and Foreigners especially the Ibos and Edjos from Nigeria. These people from different ethnic backgrounds coexist and interact in many domains (village councils, community groups, business groups, social groups, professional groups, etc) and they also inter marry.

Religion

There is freedom of worship in the Tiko municipality. Generally, the people practice Christianity. The main Christian denominations in the area include: the Presbyterians, the Roman Catholics, the Baptists, Full gospel, Apostolic and several other Pentecostal churches. There are also Muslims, Bahais and traditionalists in the municipality.

The religious institutions contribute to the development of the municipality by providing educational and health facilities, recreational facilities like play grounds and psychosocial facilities like halls to the population.

Main Economic activities of the Municipality

Ecnomic activities of the municipality fall within three main sectors. Genrally, there is:

The primary sector defined by natural resource management activities such as agricultural, animal rearing, fishing, and forest exploitation.

The secondary sector defined by mining and industrial activities.

The tertiary sector characterized by the production of services.

The primary sector

a) Agriculture

Agriculture is the economic base of the Municipality. Over 70% of the entire surface area of the Municipality is under farming and about 90% of the population of the municipality practice agriculture. The highly fertile soils and favorable ecological conditions are ideal for the cultivation of a variety of crops. However, farmers are not getting the best yields for their labour because of poor farming practices and other drawbacks like crop pests and diseases.

The biggest farmers in the area are the Cameroon Development Corporation CDC, Delmonte and PHP who are into large scale production of banana and oil palm production for exportation. A substantial percentage of the population is also engaged in the cultivation of bananas, plantains, maize, cassava, yams, coco yams, okro, cocoa, mangoes, palm, coconut, etc. Most of the small land farming is for household use (subsistence).

Livestock production

Besides crop farming the population also practice livestock farming. livestock rabbits and Guinea pigs are also reared in the municipality. Cattle in the municipality are brought in from other areas for sale.

The prevalence of animal diseases, inadequate veterinary facilities and high cost of inputs are affecting livestock production in the area.

c) Fishing

A major part of the population in the Tiko Municipality is engaged in fishing from its creeks, rivers and streams and in the high sea. Both artisanal and industrial fishing is done in the municipality. Fresh water fish like Yenga, Cameroon Telga, Molette, Groupa, Clarias (Mud fish) and many other varieties are caught by local fishermen. Sea fish like; Bar Fish, Sea Groupa, Sharks, snake fish, kuta are caught by local fishermen and fishing companies from the Atlantic Ocean. Fishing is the main source of income for the inhabitants of the creeks where it is either sold in the fresh state or smoked state.

As far as fishing is concerned, problems faced include the non respect of quotas and the use of wrong net sizes. In order to safeguard the ecosystem, Fishing permits are withdrawn from fishing companies who do not respect the laws. Another main problem faced is the use of toxic chemical by some local fishermen in fishing.

d) Forest Exploitation

About 80 % of forestland in the Tiko municipality has been converted to farm land (oil palm, rubber and banana plantations) by CDC and Delmonte. There is no timber exploitation in the area. Timber is imported from Kumba, Mbanga and limbe into the sub division.

However, the Mangrove forest of Tiko Sub division is higly exploited as fuel wood for sale and as construction wood. The mangrove forest is also highly exploited by fishermen as wood for drying of fish. Most of the exploiters are foreigners (Nigerian) who do it illegally and unsustainably.

The secondary sector

Tiko Municipality harbors many industrial establishments that contribute in one way or another to the economic development of the municipality

They Include:

Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) which has a palm oil processing plant and a number of rubber plants.

Delmonte Corporation which has large Banana plantation and carries out processing and packaging operations and exportation.

The Brasserie Brewery has beverage bottling and distribution centre

Volcanic which is a water bottling company

Neo-TP and CDL (Carriere Du Litoral) are construction companies and produce gravels.

SAMCO-Paper production Company

Chiongxi (Chinese egg, chicken and feed production company).

There are no mining industries in the area. No research has been carried out to discover the types of minerals availabe in the area, but it is obvious that valuable mineral resources could be found in the area. However, there are stone deposits in Ombe and are being exploited by two construction companies NEO-TP and CDL (Carrier du Litoral).

The presence of industrial establishments is influencing the migration of many people into the municipality, for employment or commercial purposes. The presence of some of these companies is accompanied by the construction of basic infrastructures like roads, portable water and health units. These factors lead to socio economic development of the area.

The tertiary sector

This sector in the Tiko municipality is characterized by provision stores, bakeries, Barbing saloons, hair dressing saloons, bars, restaurants, tailoring workshops, whole sale shops, discotheques, carpentry workshops, welding workshops, motor mechanic workshops, saw mills, grinding mills, documentation centers, cyber café, hotels, interior decoration workshops, etc. These businesses contribute to the local economy through payment of taxes to the council and employment.

Commercial activities

There exist many traders who sell food stuff like palm oil, plantain, cocoyams, yams, banana, cassava products, maize, fruits and fish. There also exist many wholesale and retail shops for items like, building materials, electronics, dresses, motor parts etc.

The municipality also has many financial institutions that provide saving and loaning opportunities to the population of the municipality and money trasfers. Table 9 shows the different financial institution in the municipality

Transport activities

Transportation means in the municipality include Buses, taxis, motor bikes and boats .Taxis, buses and motor bikes are used for transportation in towns and some mainland villages while villages in the creeks can only be accessed through water ways, using boats. There also exist three inter urban transport agencies in the municipality. These, especially the motor bike taxi business are helping to reduce unemployment in the municipality, as many youths are into it.

The transport sector in the area is faced with the problem of poorly organized motor parks. Motor bikes are usually found crowded at road junctions or on road sides waiting for passengers. Transport vehicles are either parked on road side while drivers scramble for passengers or they drive up and down to pick up passengers. These are promoting accidents, theft and other insecurity on travelers, especially in Mutengene and Likomba. There is need to create organized parks in order to reduce the level of insecurity.